High Manganese Steel (Manganal) is perhaps one of the most unique and exceptional types of specialized steel on the market. However, if you mention ‘Manganese’ to anyone outside of the world of metallurgy, you’ll likely be met with a blank stare.
To help you to understand just how exceptional our High Manganese steel (Manganal) is, we have assembled a list of the most common questions that customers tend to ask:
- WHAT IS HIGH MANGANESE? – High Manganese (Manganal) is an austenitic (nonmagnetic), work-hardening steel. The “high” refers to the high carbon content. Typical chemical content is 11-14% manganese and 1.00-1.25% carbon.
- WHY IS HIGH MANGANESE STEEL UNUSUAL? – Manganese thrives in severe wear conditions. The more impact and hammering, the harder the surface becomes. This is known as “Work-Hardening”. Plus, it remains ductile underneath making it an effective steel in combating both impact and abrasion.
- WHEN WAS MANGANESE STEEL DISCOVERED? – It was discovered by Robert Hadfield in Sheffield England in 1882 and was introduced into the US in 1892.
- WHY IS IT WIDELY USED? – It has very high ductility, strength and exceptional wear resistance in the most punishing conditions.
- IN WHAT FORM IS IT AVAILABLE? – Manganese Steel (Manganal) is available under the trade name TITUS Mn. and is sold as hot rolled plate, bars and shapes. It is also sold as a casting.
- WHY IS TITUS Mn DIFFERENT FROM CASE-HARDENED STEELS OR AR STEELS? – With case hardened and AR steels, the depth of hardness is fixed. With Titus Mn (Manganal), the hard surface is continually renewed and re-hardened as it wears away, right down to the last millimeter of thickness.
- HOW HARD CAN A MANGANESE STEEL SURFACE GET? – When a manganese steel (Manganal) is put into service, it is usually about 200 Brinell. Depending on deformation, the surface can work-harden all the way up to 500 Brinell.
- ARE ITS ABILITY TO WORK-HARDEN, TOUGHNESS AND DUCTILITY THE ONLY ADVANTAGES OF TITUS Mn? – While these are often major selling points, Manganese Steel (Manganal) also has a low coefficient of friction, which is extremely advantageous in metal-to-metal applications.
- HOW DOES TITUS Mn BEHAVE UNDER IMPACT WITH NO ABRASION? – Unlike AR steels which tend to erode quickly and breaks down at the surface with cracking, gouging and tearing, High Manganese Steel (Manganal) work-hardens rapidly, taking on a smooth polish due to its low friction properties while retaining its great toughness under the hardened surface. A good example of surface work-hardening with mostly IMPACT is the liners of shot blast cabinets.
- HOW DOES IT PERFORM WITH NO IMPACT BUT ONLY COMPRESSION? – The surface work-hardens with compression, exactly the same as with impact. For example, cone crushers with rocks are crushed. The compressive abrasion deforms the surface structure and therefore it work-hardens rapidly.
- HOW DOES IT WORK IN “LIGHT ABRASION”? – This is one application where High Manganese Steel (Manganal) might not be the best option. If an application only applies light abrasion, then the steel will not undergo enough surface deformation to Work-Harden. However, if the surface experiences only light abrasion but significant impact or compression, the surface will work-harden from those stresses, making it work-hardened and resistant to any abrasion.
- WHAT ABOUT CORROSION RESISTANCE? – Manganese Steel (Manganal) is no better at withstanding corrosion than mild steel.
- WHAT ABOUT HIGH TEMPERATURE? – Continuous high temperature can embrittle a Manganese steel (Manganal) and cause cracking.
- WHAT TYPE OF WELDING ELECTRODE IS BEST? – Specialty welding electrodes, such as The AWS EFeMN grouping and the specially modified manganese weld rod sold by Titus Steel, are ideal for working with Manganese Steel (Manganal). The advantage of a special Mn weld rod is that it will also work-harden if exposed to the “work area”. There is no pre or post heating required.
- CAN WELDING BY OXY-ACETYLENE BE USED? – Oxy-Acetylene is not recommended for Manganese Steel (Manganal).
- DOES HEAT FROM THE WELDING AFFECT TITUS Mn? – Welding heat from appropriate equipment will have no effect on strength, ductility, or work-hardening of Manganese Steel (Manganal).
- HOW ABOUT MACHINING TITUS Mn? – Due to its properties, Manganese Steel (Manganal) does not lend itself to usual machine shop methods. When a drill or certain cutting tools are applied, the machining will quickly work-harden the area you mean to shear or puncture. The steel is machineable within limits using special tooling.
- WHAT METHODS ARE USED TO WORK TITUS Mn? – Cutting by plasma, oxy fuel or abrasive cut-off saws. Shearing, bending, and rolling require heavy equipment which is 2-3 times that used on mild steel.
These are the most common questions we field, but we understand that there is much more to know about High Manganese Steel (Manganal), particularly as it applies to your unique applications and needs. If you have any questions about Manganese steel (Manganal), or any other type of steel, we invite you to contact us today.
Titus Steel has been selling TITUS Mn (Manganal) for over 60 years. We are experts in the application and use of this unique steel, and are more than happy to answer any questions you may have.